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Chronology of the Armenian Genocide

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  • #11
    1920

    anuary 19
    The Allies formally recognize the independence of Armenia.

    January 19
    Tried in Constantinople in absentia, Behaeddin Shakir is sentenced to death and Dr. Nazim to fifteen years hard labor.

    January 21
    Turkish Nationalist forces affiliated with Mustafa Kemal attack Marash.

    February 5
    10,000 Armenians are massacred in Marash.

    April 1
    The Ittihadists distribute relief funds to party members in hiding in Turkey accused of crimes and to those who had fled to foreign countries.

    April 22
    The United States of America officially recognizes the Independent Republic of Armenia.

    April 23
    The Ottoman government in Constantinople announces that it will seek a new review by higher judicial bodies of the sentences against those tried by the courts martial.

    April 25
    United States President Woodrow Wilson receives an invitation from the San Remo Conference to determine the borders of Armenia.

    May
    The French and Turkish Nationalists agree to an armistice.

    July 22
    Jemal Oguz, the murderer of the poet Daniel Varoujan and other Armenian intellectuals, escapes from custody with the assistance of the Military Governor of Constantinople.

    July 29
    Five war criminals tried for the massacres in Erzinjan, all of whom had conveniently escaped from custody, are sentenced in absentia.

    August 5
    The court martial condemns to death Nusret, vice-governor of Bayburt District.

    August 10
    The Treaty of Svres is signed. According to articles 226, 227, 228, 229, 230 pertaining to the massacres, the Turkish government promises to hand over all documents and any persons requested by the Allies. Articles 88 and 89 recognize Armenia as a free and independent state.

    August
    The Turkish Nationalist and Bolshevik forces form an alliance.

    November 22
    President Woodrow Wilson presents his delineation of the borders of Armenia. A week later Armenia is partitioned by Turkish Nationalist forces and Sovietized by Russian Bolsheviks.

    November
    Of 10,000 Armenians living in Hadjin (Hajen), only 480 survive a massacre by Turkish Nationalist forces.

    December 30
    The trial on the massacres in Mosul begins.
    General Antranik (1865-1927): I am not a nationalist. I recognize only one nation, the nation of the oppressed.

    Comment


    • #12
      1921

      January 3, 4, and 5
      An acquittal is handed down for those accused of the massacre in Adrianople (Edirne).

      January 18
      The Ottoman government abolishes the courts martial.

      January 21
      The trial on Erzerum massacres is reviewed by a new and higher court.

      January
      Naim Jevad, an accused war criminal, is sent by Enver as an envoy from Moscow to Constantinople.

      January 20
      The Turkish Nationalist Pact demands the inclusion of Armenia, Smyrna, and Thrace in Turkish territory.

      February 8
      Mustafa Pasha, presiding judge of the court martial which had condemned Nusret to death on August 5, 1920, was acquitted of the charge of having joined in a conspiracy against the government after six months of imprisonment and a trial. The trial signals the beginning of the reversal of the policy on bringing the Ittihadists to justice.

      February 11
      After a ten-months siege, Aintab capitulates to Turkish Nationalist forces.

      February 17
      The trial on the Keghi massacres is held.

      February 18
      Some of the war criminals are acquitted.

      February 24
      The investigation of the Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor) massacres begins.

      March 10
      The investigation of the Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor) massacres continues.

      March 15
      Talaat is assassinated in Berlin by an Armenian student, Soghomon Tehlirian. Talaat had been condemned to death by the Turkish court martial on July 11, 1919. (In 1943, the Turkish government removed the remains of Talaat from Nazi Germany and enshrined them with great ceremony on Liberty Hill in Constantinople.)

      June 1
      The German Foreign Office obstructs the former German Consul at Aleppo, Rossler, from testifying in the Berlin court trying Talaat's assassin.

      June 2
      Tehlirian's trial is held in Berlin.

      June 3
      Tehlirian is acquitted.

      December 6
      Said Halim is assassinated in Rome.
      General Antranik (1865-1927): I am not a nationalist. I recognize only one nation, the nation of the oppressed.

      Comment


      • #13
        1922


        April 7
        Jemal Azmi, the governor-general of Trebizond during the massacres, and Behaeddin Shakir are assassinated in Berlin.

        July 25
        Jemal Pasha, the former Minister of the Marine and the Fifth Army commander in Syria, is assassinated in Tiflis (Tbilisi).

        August 26
        Anarchy spreads in Smyrna as the Turks press in on the city.

        September 9
        The advance guard of the Turkish Army enters Smyrna and pillages Armenian and Greek homes and stores. Armenians and Greeks are killed in the thousands. Religious institutions, including the Armenian Prelacy in Smyrna, are ransacked.

        September 13
        The burning of Smyrna by the Turks. Within 24 hours, 50,000 houses, 24 churches, 28 schools, 5 consulates, 7 clubs, 5 banks, and an unknown number of stores and warehouses are destroyed.

        November 20
        The first Lausanne Conference is convened.
        General Antranik (1865-1927): I am not a nationalist. I recognize only one nation, the nation of the oppressed.

        Comment


        • #14
          1923

          February 4
          The Lausanne Conference deadlocks over the Armenian Question.

          April 23
          The second Lausanne Conference is convened.

          July 24
          Treaty of Lausanne signed by Turkey and the Allies excludes all mention of Armenia or the Armenians. The new Turkish Nationalist state is extended international recognition. The Ottoman Empire goes out of existence.

          August 23
          The Turkish Nationalist congress, known as the Grand National Assembly, meeting in Ankara ratifies the Lausanne Treaty. The Allies begin to evacuate the following day from all places in Turkey that had been occupied in accordance with the terms of the Armistice of October 30, 1918.

          October 29
          The Republic of Turkey is proclaimed by the Turkish Grand National Assembly with Mustafa Kemal as its President.
          General Antranik (1865-1927): I am not a nationalist. I recognize only one nation, the nation of the oppressed.

          Comment


          • #15
            1939

            August 22
            While addressing his military commanders at Obersalzburg, a week before the invasion of Poland, and the start of World War II, Adolph Hitler speaks of his orders "to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of Polish race or language," and concludes his remarks by saying: "WHO STILL TALKS NOWADAYS OF THE EXTERMINATION OF THE ARMENIANS?"
            General Antranik (1865-1927): I am not a nationalist. I recognize only one nation, the nation of the oppressed.

            Comment

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