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Global Warming

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  • #71
    Re: Global Warming

    WASHINGTON — Earth dialed the heat up in June, smashing warm temperature records for both the month and the first half of the year.

    Off-the-charts heat is "getting to be a monthly thing," said Jessica Blunden, a climate scientist for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "This is the third month this year that we've broken the monthly record."

    "There is almost no way that 2015 isn't going to be the warmest on record," she added.

    NOAA calculated that the world's average temperature in June hit 61.48 degrees Fahrenheit (16.33 Celsius), breaking the old record set last year by 0.22 degrees (.12 degrees Celsius). Usually temperature records are broken by one or two one-hundredths of a degree, not nearly a quarter of a degree, Blunden said.

    And the picture is even more dramatic when the entire year is considered.



    FILE - In this June 29, 2015, file photo, children play as they cool down in a fountain beside the Manzanares river in Madrid, Spain. June was warm nearly all over, with exceptional heat in Spain, Austria, parts of Asia, Australia and South America. Pakistan reported a June heat wave that killed more than 1,200 people, which according to an international database would be the 8th deadliest in the world since 1900. AP Photo/Andres Kudacki, File FILE - In this June 29, 2015, file photo, children play as they cool down in a fountain beside the Manzanares river in Madrid, Spain. June was warm nearly all over, with exceptional heat in Spain, Austria, parts of Asia…The first six months of 2015 were one-sixth of a degree warmer than the old record, set in 2010, averaging 57.83 degrees (14.35 Celsius).

    The old record for the first half of the year was set in 2010, the last time there was an El Nino — a warming of the central Pacific Ocean that changes weather worldwide. But in 2010, the El Nino petered out. This year, forecasters are predicting this El Nino will get stronger, not weaker.

    "If that happens, it's just going to go off the charts," Blunden said.

    June was warm nearly all over the world, with exceptional heat in Spain, Austria, parts of Asia, Australia and South America. Southern Pakistan had a June heat wave that killed more than 1,200 people — which according to an international database would be the eighth deadliest in the world since 1900. In May, a heat wave in India claimed more than 2,000 lives and ranked as the fifth deadliest on record.

    May and March also broke monthly heat records, which go back 136 years. Earth has broken monthly heat records 24 times since the year 2000, but hasn't broken a monthly cold record since 1916.

    "This is what anthropogenic global warming looks like, just hotter and hotter," said Jonathan Overpeck, co-director of the Institute of the Environment at the University of Arizona.
    Hayastan or Bust.

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    • #72
      Re: Global Warming

      BOISE, Idaho — More than a quarter million sockeye salmon returning from the ocean to spawn are either dead or dying in the Columbia River and its tributaries due to warming water temperatures.

      Federal and state fisheries biologists say the warm water is lethal for the cold-water species and is wiping out at least half of this year's return of 500,000 fish.

      "We had a really big migration of sockeye," said Ritchie Graves of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "The thing that really hurts is we're going to lose a majority of those fish."

      He said up to 80 percent of the population could ultimately perish.

      Elsewhere in the region, state fisheries biologists in Oregon say more than 100 spring chinook died earlier this month in the Middle Fork of the John Day River when water temperatures hit the mid-70s. Oregon and Washington state have both enacted sport fishing closures due to warm water, and sturgeon fishing in the Columbia River upstream of Bonneville Dam has been halted after some of the large, bottom dwelling fish started turning up dead.

      Efforts by management teams to cool flows below 70 degrees by releasing cold water from selected reservoirs are continuing in an attempt to prevent similar fish kills among chinook salmon and steelhead, which migrate later in the summer from the Pacific Ocean.

      The fish become stressed at temperatures above 68 degrees and stop migrating at 74 degrees. Much of the basin is at or over 70 degrees due to a combination that experts attribute to drought and record heat in June.

      "The tributaries are running hot," Graves said. "A lot of those are in the 76-degree range."

      In Idaho, an emergency declaration earlier this month allowed state fisheries managers to capture endangered Snake River sockeye destined for central Idaho and take them to a hatchery to recover in cooler water. Of the 4,000 fish that passed Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River, less than a fourth made it to Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River. An average year is 70 percent.

      "Right now it's grim for adult sockeye," said Russ Kiefer of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. He said sockeye will often pull into tributary rivers in search of cooler water, but aren't finding much relief.

      "They're running out of energy reserves, and we're getting a lot of reports of fish dead and dying," he said.

      Thirteen species of salmon and steelhead are listed as endangered or threatened in the Columbia River basin.

      Don Campton of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service said fish congregating in confined areas trying to find cool water makes them a target for pathogens.

      "When temperatures get warm, it does stress the fish out and they become susceptible to disease," he said.

      Graves said that this year's flow in the Columbia River is among the lowest in the last 60 years. But he said the system has experienced similar low flows without the lethal water temperatures. He said the difference this year has been prolonged hot temperatures, sometimes more than 100 degrees, in the interior part of the basin.

      "The flow is abnormally low, but on top of that we've had superhot temperatures for a really long time," he said.
      Hayastan or Bust.

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