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Eight Stages Of Genocide

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  • Eight Stages Of Genocide

    http://www.chomedeynews.ca/articles/...TCN150808.html

    Published on April 19, 2007
    EDITORIAL

    The eight stages of Genocide

    By Gregory H. Stanton
    April should be a month of reflection for humanity on the atrocities committed throughout our history. We should all reflect on the Armenian Genocide, commemorated April 24, and on the Holocaust Yom Hashoa, commemorated April 15.

    When Hitler was asked about what will the rest of the world do about his ‘final solution’ (his attempt to exterminate the Jews) he replied that it will be forgotten, like the Armenian Genocide.
    History has shown that all genocides have something in common. All start with classification and end by denial, stage seven which is extermination...
    As long as nothing is done to cut a genocide off as early as possible, at the first stage, humanity will have more genocides to commemorate...
    It is imperative to know the signs of these stages that lead to the extermination of our fellow human beings.

    1. CLASSIFICATION:
    All cultures have categories to distinguish people into "us and them" by ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality: German and Jew, Hutu and Tutsi. Bipolar societies that lack mixed categories, such as Rwanda and Burundi, are the most likely to have genocide. The main preventive measure at this early stage is to develop universalistic institutions that transcend ethnic or racial divisions, that actively promote tolerance and understanding, and that promote classifications that transcend the divisions. The Catholic church could have played this role in Rwanda, had it not been riven by the same ethnic cleavages as Rwandan society. Promotion of a common language in countries like Tanzania or Cote d'Ivoire has also promoted transcendent national identity. This search for common ground is vital to early prevention of genocide.

    2. SYMBOLIZATION:
    We give names or other symbols to the classifications. We name people "Jews" or "Gypsies", or distinguish them by colors or dress; and apply them to members of groups. Classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to the next stage, dehumanization. When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups: the yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule, the blue scarf for people from the Eastern Zone in Khmer Rouge Cambodia.
    To combat symbolization, hate symbols can be legally forbidden (swastikas) as can hate speech. Group marking like gang clothing or tribal scarring can be outlawed, as well. The problem is that legal limitations will fail if unsupported by popular cultural enforcement. Though Hutu and Tutsi were forbidden words in Burundi until the 1980's, code-words replaced them. If widely supported, however, denial of symbolization can be powerful, as it was in Bulgaria, when many non-Jews chose to wear the yellow star, depriving it of its significance as a Nazi symbol for Jews. According to legend in Denmark, the Nazis did not introduce the yellow star because they knew even the King would wear it.

    3. DEHUMANIZATION:
    One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder.
    At this stage, hate propaganda in print and on hate radios is used to vilify the victim group. In combating this dehumanization, incitement to genocide should not be confused with protected speech. Genocidal societies lack constitutional protection for countervailing speech, and should be treated differently than in democracies. Hate radio stations should be shut down, and hate propaganda banned. Hate crimes and atrocities should be promptly punished.

    4. ORGANIZATION:
    Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, though sometimes informally (Hindu mobs led by local RSS militants) or by terrorist groups. Special army units or militias are often trained and armed. Plans are made for genocidal killings.
    To combat this stage, membership in these militias should be outlawed. Their leaders should be denied visas for foreign travel. The U.N. should impose arms embargoes on governments and citizens of countries involved in genocidal massacres, and create commissions to investigate violations, as was done in post-genocide Rwanda.

    5. POLARIZATION:
    Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center. Prevention may mean security protection for moderate leaders or assistance to human rights groups. Assets of extremists may be seized, and visas for international travel denied to them. Coups d'¢etat by extremists should be opposed by international sanctions.

    6. PREPARATION:
    Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. Death lists are drawn up. Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols. They are often segregated into ghettoes, forced into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved.
    At this stage, a Genocide Alert must be called. If the political will of the U.S., NATO, and the U.N. Security Council can be mobilized, armed international intervention should be prepared, or heavy assistance to the victim group in preparing for its self-defense. Otherwise, at least humanitarian assistance should be organized by the U.N. and private relief groups for the inevitable tide of refugees.

    7. EXTERMINATION:
    Extermination begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called "genocide." It is "extermination" to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human. When it is sponsored by the state, the armed forces often work with militias to do the killing. Sometimes the genocide results in revenge killings by groups against each other, creating the downward whirlpool-like cycle of bilateral genocide (as in Burundi).
    At this stage, only rapid and overwhelming armed intervention can stop genocide. Real safe areas or refugee escape corridors should be established with heavily armed international protection. The U.N. needs a Standing High Readiness Brigade or a permanent rapid reaction force, to intervene quickly when the U.N. Security Council calls it. For larger interventions, a multilateral force authorized by the U.N., led by NATO or a regional military power, should intervene. If the U.N. will not intervene directly, militarily powerful nations should provide the airlift, equipment, and financial means necessary for regional states to intervene with U.N. authorization. It is time to recognize that the law of humanitarian intervention transcends the interests of nation-states.

    8. DENIAL:
    Denial is the eighth stage that always follows a genocide. It is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. They deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims. They block investigations of the crimes, and continue to govern until driven from power by force, when they flee into exile. There they remain with impunity, like Pol Pot or Idi Amin, unless they are captured and a tribunal is established to try them.
    The best response to denial is punishment by an international tribunal or national courts. There the evidence can be heard, and the perpetrators punished. Tribunals like the Yugoslav, Rwanda, or Sierra Leone Tribunals, an international tribunal to try the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, and ultimately the International Criminal Court must be created. They may not deter the worst genocidal killers. But with the political will to arrest and prosecute them, some mass murderers may be brought to justice.
    General Antranik (1865-1927): “I am not a nationalist. I recognize only one nation, the nation of the oppressed.”

  • #2
    News
    Ferguson Links Progress and War
    Tisch Professor says
    Published On 11/6/2007 11:26:46 PM
    By BONNIE J. KAVOUSSI
    Contributing Writer

    The 20th century was a time of unprecedented progress, Tisch Professor of History Niall Ferguson said yesterday. Life expectancy soared, quality of life improved, and democracy spread. But why was the twentieth century also the bloodiest?

    According to Ferguson, who spoke to a crowd of 20 students at Hilles as part of the “Coffee with a View” series yesterday afternoon, the answer lies partly in that very progress.

    In a talk entitled, “The War of the World,” Ferguson argued that the major ingredients for world war continue to loom today.

    Ferguson said that economic volatility, ethnic disintegration, and empires in decline— what he called the “three E’s”—are responsible for the unprecedented scale of violence in the past century.

    In the economic booms, said Ferguson, it was often minorities—such as the Jews in Europe and the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire—who disproportionately benefited. Then, “in the crunch, the blame for economic downturn could be placed on the successful minority,” he said.

    In a time of Western decline—as in any time of imperial decline—Ferguson said, “the question is: Who is in charge now?”

    While violence in the first half of the 20th century was concentrated in Central and Eastern Europe, Ferguson said the next fulcrum of violence will probably be the Middle East. All the ingredients for “megadeath” are there, he said.

    But Ferguson said that “the importance of human agency” in starting wars should not be dismissed.

    In the question and answer session that followed, when multiple students asked him to predict the level of violence in the next few decades, Ferguson said that “there’s no such thing as the future—there are only futures.”

    Although Ferguson said that a major war within the next decade is likely, he said, “I’m describing to you only the preconditions for violence. This does not make it inevitable.”

    Just as Nixon visited Beijing, he said, the next American president can visit Tehran and draw back from the brink of war.

    “Violence is quite likely, and avoiding it will require leadership,” concluded Ferguson.


    http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=520585
    General Antranik (1865-1927): “I am not a nationalist. I recognize only one nation, the nation of the oppressed.”

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