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News in Science

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  • Haykakan
    Re: News in Science

    This is so cool. I hope their devices become widely used.

    Leave a comment:

  • Haykakan
    Re: News in Science


    April 8, 21:23

    Scientists in a north London hospital are growing ears, noses and
    blood vessels in the laboratory attempting to make body parts with
    the help of stem cells.

    While only a handful of patients have received the British lab-made
    organs so far- including tear ducts, blood vessels and windpipes -
    researchers hope they will soon be able to transplant more types of
    body parts into patients, including what would be the world's first
    nose made partly from stem cells, reports Newsmax Health.

    "It's like making a cake," said Alexander Seifalian at University
    College London, the scientist leading the effort. "We just use a
    different kind of oven."

    During a recent visit to his lab, Seifalian showed off a sophisticated
    machine used to make molds from a polymer material for various organs.

    Last year, he and his team made a nose for a British man who lost his
    to cancer. Scientists added a salt and sugar solution to the mold of
    the nose to mimic the somewhat sponge-like texture of the real thing.

    Stem cells were taken from the patient's fat and grown in the lab
    for two weeks before being used to cover the nose scaffold. Later,
    the nose was implanted into the man's forearm so that skin would grow
    to cover it.

    Seifalian said he and his team are waiting for approval from regulatory
    authorities to transfer the nose onto the patient's face but couldn't
    say when that might happen.

    Later this year, a trial is scheduled to start in India and London
    to test lab-made ears for people born without them.

    The potential applications of lab-made organs appear so promising
    even the city of London is getting involved: Seifalian's work is
    being showcased on Tuesday as Mayor Boris Johnson announces a new
    initiative to attract investment to Britain's health and science
    sectors so spin-off companies can spur commercial development of the
    pioneering research.

    The polymer material Seifalian uses for his organ scaffolds has been
    patented and he's also applied for patents for their blood vessels,
    tear ducts and windpipe.

    Seifalian estimated about 10 million pounds ($16 million) has gone
    into his research since 2005 but said he hoped lab-made organs would
    one day be available for a few hundred dollars.

    Leave a comment:

  • Haykakan
    Re: News in Science

    Premature birth possibly caused by specific bacteria: research
    Premature birth possibly caused by specific bacteria: research
    January 9, 2014 - 10:24 AMT
    PanARMENIAN.Net - A major cause of premature birth - where waters break too soon, triggering labor - may be a specific bacteria, according to research that could lead to screening and possible treatment for women at risk of early labor, BBC News reports.
    The findings by a U.S. team, published in the journal PLOS ONE, suggest certain bacteria may lead to thinning of the membranes around the baby, causing them to tear.
    Early rupture of membranes causes almost a third of all premature births. The membranes that make up the sac that holds the baby usually break at the start of labor.
    If a mother's waters break before the baby has reached full term, the medical term is preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM). If this happens early, before contractions start, it can - but does not always - trigger early labor.
    Researchers at Duke University School of Medicine have found high numbers of bacteria at the site where membranes rupture, which are linked with the thinning of membranes.
    If the bacteria are the cause rather than the consequence of early membrane rupture, it may be possible to develop new treatments or screen for women at risk, they say.
    Study author Amy Murtha, associate professor of obstetrics and gynaecology at Duke University School of Medicine, said: "For instance, if we think that certain bacteria are associated with premature rupturing of the membranes, we can screen for this bacteria early in pregnancy. We then might be able to treat affected women with antibiotics and reduce their risk for PPROM. Our research is several steps away from this, but it gives us opportunities to explore potential targeted therapeutic interventions, which we lack in obstetrics."
    The researchers examined membrane samples in 48 women who had just given birth, including those with PPROM, those who had an early birth for other reasons, and those with babies born at full term.
    The researchers found bacteria were present in all membranes, but the more bacteria present, the thinner the membranes, especially in women with PPROM.
    Commenting on the study, Dr Patrick O'Brien, from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, said it had been known for a while that bacterial infection was responsible for PPROM in some women.
    He told BBC News: "We've long suspected and known that bacteria are involved in a large proportion of these women. What we really need to know now is to understand the detailed mechanism of how bacteria cause the waters to break."
    Duncan Wilbur, head of communications at the UK premature baby charity Bliss, added: "We welcome any research that helps us better understand the causes of preterm birth and identify those women at high risk. This study's findings are really interesting and more research needs to be done to find treatments that will help prevention of premature birth."

    Leave a comment:

  • Haykakan
    Re: News in Science

    02.04.2014 13:22

    The stem cell therapy Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan underwent in
    South Korea please him so much that after returning from vacation,
    he touched on this topic during his first visit abroad, reports
    local dailyZhoghovurd.

    The newspaper reports that during Sargsyan's visit to the Czech
    Republic, bilateral agreements to develop and deepen cooperation
    in several areas, one of which concerns stem cell transplants,
    were signed.

    The Haematology Center named after Professor R. Yeolyan in Armenia
    henceforth will collaborate with the Institute of Hematology and
    Blood Transfusion in Prague and innovative Czech company Full Medical
    Service in the development of technology for long-term preservation
    and use of human stem cells.

    Leave a comment:

  • Haykakan
    Re: News in Science

    Russia helped to buy new telescopes for Byurakan Observatory

    February 01, 2014 | 16:17

    YEREVAN. - Russia helped to purchase several new telescopes for the
    Byurakan Observatory.

    "This year we are going to buy large telescopes. The telescopes have
    been imported to Armenia. Some of them have been installed, while the
    rest will be placed in the near future," Arthur Baghdasaryan,
    Secretary of National Security Council, told reporters.

    A delegation of the Russian federal space agency headed by Oleg
    Ostapenko will travel to Armenia soon. During the meetings, creation
    of a joint venture "ArmRoskosmos" on the basis of the Byurakan
    Observatory will be discussed.

    Modernization of the observatory continues, Baghdasaryan said, adding
    that last year's technical assistance amounted to around 5 million

    Besides, with the support of the Russian Federation, modernization of
    geophysical observatory in Garni will be completed in 2014.

    Leave a comment:

  • Haykakan
    Re: News in Science

    Originally posted by hagopn View Post
    Dwarfing due to warmer climates? Lower nutritional levels of more abundant plants? Huh? "High quantity but less nutritious food makes you shorter over time"-- Go figure. Is McDonald's making us shorter, then?
    Cold weather favors larger bodies for mamals because it is easier to generate and retain more heat when you are big. A good example is the polar bear which is the largest predator on earth and lives in the arctic. Cold climate favors large body size in mammals.

    Leave a comment:

  • hagopn
    Re: News in Science

    Dwarfing due to warmer climates? Lower nutritional levels of more abundant plants? Huh? "High quantity but less nutritious food makes you shorter over time"-- Go figure. Is McDonald's making us shorter, then?

    Leave a comment:

  • Haykakan
    Re: News in Science

    Global Warming Led to Dwarfism in Mammals -- Twice
    Nov. 2, 2013 — Mammal body size decreased significantly during at least two ancient global warming events. A new finding that suggests a similar outcome is possible in response to human-caused climate change, according to a University of Michigan paleontologist and his colleagues.
    Share This:

    Researchers have known for years that mammals such as primates and the groups that include horses and deer became much smaller during a period of warming, called the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), about 55 million years ago.
    Now U-M paleontologist Philip Gingerich and his colleagues have found evidence that mammalian "dwarfing" also occurred during a separate, smaller global warming event that occurred about 2 million years after the PETM, around 53 million years ago.
    "The fact that it happened twice significantly increases our confidence that we're seeing cause and effect, that one interesting response to global warming in the past was a substantial decrease in body size in mammalian species," said Gingerich, a professor of earth and environmental sciences.
    The research team also includes scientists from the University of New Hampshire, Colorado College and the California Institute of Technology. The researchers are scheduled to present their findings Friday, Nov. 1, in Los Angeles at the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.
    They concluded that decreased body size "seems to be a common evolutionary response" by mammals to extreme global warming events, known as hyperthermals, "and thus may be a predictable natural response for some lineages to future global warming."
    The PETM lasted about 160,000 years, and global temperatures rose an estimated 9 to 14 degrees Fahrenheit at its peak. The smaller, later event analyzed in the latest study, known as ETM2 (Eocene Thermal Maximum 2), lasted 80,000 to 100,000 years and resulted in a peak temperature increase of about 5 degrees Fahrenheit.
    Teeth and jaw fossils of early hoofed mammals and primates that spanned this later climatic event were collected in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin, and the size of molar teeth was used as a proxy for body size. The researchers found that body size decreased during ETM2, but not as much as the dwarfism seen in PETM fossils.
    For example, the study revealed that a lineage of early horses the size of a small dog, called Hyracotherium, experienced a body-size decrease of about 19 percent during ETM2. The same horse lineage showed a body-size decrease of about 30 percent during the PETM. After both events, the animals rebounded to their pre-warming size.
    "Interestingly, the extent of mammalian dwarfism may be related to the magnitude of the hyperthermal event," said team member Abigail D'Ambrosia of the University of New Hampshire.
    An ancient ungulate called Diacodexis decreased about 20 percent in size during ETM2, and the primate Cantius decreased 8 percent.
    The burning of fossil fuels and the resulting release of heat-trapping greenhouse gases -- mainly carbon dioxide -- is blamed for present-day climate warming. The ancient warming events may have been caused by the release of seabed methane clathrates, a kind of methane ice found in ocean sediments, though this topic remains an area of active research, Gingerich said. Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, and atmospheric methane is eventually transformed into carbon dioxide and water.
    The parallels between ancient hyperthermals and modern-day warming make studies of the fossil record particularly valuable, said team member Will Clyde of the University of New Hampshire.
    "Developing a better understanding of the relationship between mammalian body size change and greenhouse gas-induced global warming during the geological past may help us predict ecological changes that may occur in response to current changes in Earth's climate," Clyde said.
    In 2006, Gingerich proposed that mammalian dwarfing could be a response to the lower nutritional value of plants grown under elevated carbon dioxide levels. Under such conditions, plants grow quickly but are less nutritious than they would normally be.
    Animals eating such plants might adapt by becoming smaller over time. Evidence from the ETM2 fossils is consistent with that hypothesis, and research on the topic is ongoing, Gingerich said.
    The research was funded by the National Science Foundation (EAR0958821), Geological Society of America, Paleontological Society and Sigma Xi.

    Leave a comment:

  • Haykakan
    Re: News in Science

    13:38 ~U 08.10.13

    An ethnic Armenian scientist from Russia is said to have high chances
    of being nominated for Nobel Prize this year.

    Artyom Ohanov, who ranks among the top 10 best-known scientists at
    home and the top 50 internationally acclaimed Russia-based scientists,
    was earlier mentioned as a possible nominee of the Noble prize.

    A graduate of the Moscow State University, he has been a guest lecturer
    in the United Kingdom, Italy, France and China. He is now a laboratory
    director at the New York University, as well as in Russia and China,
    according to Russky Reporters.

    Ohanov, however, does not turn out to be very ambitious. He has
    told the Russian news website that he wishes to keep doing his job,
    without ever thinking about the Nobel prize.

    A new family of polymers with the dielectic properties, which the
    scientist had predicted, has been possible to obtain in a laboratory.

    In an earlier interview with Snob, Ohanov spoke of his Armenian

    Armenian News -

    Leave a comment:

  • Haykakan
    Re: News in Science


    By MassisPost
    Updated: August 12, 2013

    YEREVAN - Several students from Yerevan State University who have
    been conducting their thesis work at the Cosmic Ray Division of
    the Yerevan Physics Institute have entered a new milestone in their
    career preparation.

    Hripsime Mkrtchyan and Hasmik Rostomyan successfully finished their
    Master in Physics courses at the Yerevan State University. Hripsime's
    Master's thesis was titled "The Electrical structure of Thunderclouds
    and Initiation of the Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs)", and
    Hasmig's was "The Maximal Energy of Solar Accelerators: Evidence from
    Space and Earth's Surface Measurements". Now they have applied for
    a job at the Cosmic Ray Division (CRD) of Yerevan Physics Institute
    (YerPhI) and will prepare for the Thunderstorms and Elementary
    Particle Acceleration (TEPA 2013) international conference to be held
    at the Nor-Amberd research station, Armenia, September 9-13. They
    will also prepare for the YerPhI PhD program entrance examinations
    in November. Hripsime and Hasmig were the recipients of the Kirakos
    Vaporciyan Scholarship for CRD students at Yerevan State University
    this year. Congratulations to Hripsime and Hasmig for their recent
    accomplishments and we wish them well during the coming years.

    Hayk Avagyan graduated from the Computer Science Department of the
    Yerevan State University and started his work at the CRD. His main
    topics of interest at the CRD will be the development of new algorithms
    for data analysis and the analysis and correlation of the Aragats
    Space Environmental Center data, and data from other astroparticle
    physics experiments.

    Patrick Fasano, an undergraduate student at the University of Notre
    Dame in South Bend, Indiana, USA, started his internship at the
    CRD with the support of the Nanovic Institute for European Studies
    at the University of Notre Dame. Patrick will work 10-weeks at the
    Cosmic Ray Division, assisting with upgrades and improvements to CRD's
    data storage and processing software, as well as learning about data
    analysis of Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements, a newly discovered high
    energy phenomena in the terrestrial atmosphere. He will also work with
    CRD graduate students to make improvements to Advanced Data Analysis
    System (ADAS) file servers for conserving computer storage space.

    Thirteen of the CRD's young scientists and staff received a performance
    based bonus from the Harutyun and Nadya Vaporciyan Family for their
    outstanding work and their resolve to pursue scientific excellence
    in Armenia. "I have their picture on my mirror, and I look at them
    every day and I am so proud", says Harutyun Vaporciyan when he speaks
    of these talented young people.

    "All in all, we are satisfied with the progress of our students and
    our young and seasoned scientists who mentor our students", says Prof.

    Ashot Chilingarian, the director of Yerevan Physics Institute and the
    head of its Cosmic Ray Division. "We are also very grateful to the
    Vaporciyan family for supporting our young scientists and students
    with scholarships and prizes."

    Leave a comment: