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News in Science

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  • #51
    Re: News in Science

    Sci News
    Sept 26 2014

    Stone Tool Discovery in Armenia Gives Insight into Human Innovation
    325,000 Years Ago
    Sep 27, 2014 by

    An analysis of about 3,000 stone tools from a 325,000-year-old
    archaeological site near the village of Nor Geghi in the Kotayk
    Province of Armenia challenges the theory held by many scientists that
    the so-called Levallois stone tool-making technique was invented in
    Africa and then spread across the world as the human population

    This image shows stone tools found at the site of Nor Geghi, Armenia:
    top - biface tool; bottom - a Levallois core. Image credit: (c) Dan

    Named after flint tools discovered in the 19th century in the
    Levallois-Perret suburb of Paris in France, Levallois technique is a
    distinctive style of flint knapping developed by early humans during
    the Paleolithic.

    This technique involves the multistage shaping of a mass of stone in
    preparation to detach a flake of predetermined size and shape from a
    single preferred surface.

    Many anthropologists argue that Levallois technique was invented in
    Africa more than 300,000 years ago and spread to Eurasia with
    expanding human populations, replacing a more basic type of technology
    - biface technique - in which a raw block of stone is shaped through
    the serial removal of interrelated flakes until the remaining volume
    takes on a desired form, such as a hand axe.

    But now a team of archaeologists and anthropologists from the United
    States and Europe led by Dr Daniel Adler of the University of
    Connecticut has discovered at the Armenian archaeological site of Nor
    Geghi that Levallois tools already existed there between 325,000 and
    335,000 years ago, suggesting that local populations developed them
    out of biface technique, which was also found at the site.

    The co-existence of the two techniques provides the first clear
    evidence that local populations developed Levallois technique out of
    existing biface technique.

    "The discovery of thousands of stone artifacts preserved at this
    unique site provides a major new insight into how Stone Age tools
    developed during a period of profound human behavioral and biological
    change", said Dr Simon Blockley of Royal Holloway, University of
    London, who is a co-author of the paper describing the discovery in
    the journal Science.

    "The people who lived there 325,000 years ago were much more
    innovative than previously thought, using a combination of two
    different technologies to make tools that were extremely important for
    the mobile hunter-gatherers of the time."

    Moreover, the chemical analysis of several hundred obsidian tools from
    Nor Geghi shows that early humans at the site utilized obsidian
    outcrops from as far away as 120 km, suggesting they must have been
    capable of exploiting large, environmentally diverse territories.


    D. S. Adler et al. 2014. Early Levallois technology and the Lower to
    Middle Paleolithic transition in the Southern Caucasus. Science, vol.
    345, no. 6204, pp. 1609-1613; doi: 10.1126/science.1256484
    Hayastan or Bust.


    • #52
      Re: News in Science


      15:06, 05 Dec 2014

      Russia-based Armenians Tos Movsisyan and Artem Germeryan have invented
      a device that prints photos from Instagram, which has no analogue in
      the world, Russian Vedomosti reports.

      Instagram is the most positive social network. Photos on Instagram
      always express emotions. That's why Tos Movsisyanfrom Moscow and Artem
      Germeryan, a resident of Saint Petersburg, decided to materialize them.

      They created the Boft devise, which prints square photos immediately
      form the user's profile, and the profile opens on a large touch
      screen. The printing of two photos costs 50 rubles. Four and 20 photos
      will cost 100 and 500 rubles respectively.

      The two met at the Lappeenranta University of Technology, where the
      students were sent to study by their universities. "Where else could
      two Russian-speaking Armenians meet, if not in Finland?" Movsisyan

      Movsisyan and Germeryan invested $200 000 in the business. They spent
      over a year to develop the software and the devise itself and to find
      a company that would agree to produce the necessary equipment.

      There are currently 10 Boft devises installed in Moscow trade center,
      and another three in Saint Petersburg. The entrepreneurs intend to
      install 150 devises all over Russia in 2015 and hope to reach the
      US market.
      Hayastan or Bust.


      • #53
        Re: News in Science


        February 9, 2015

        CBC, Montreal - Seventeen-year-old Anya Pogharian's high school science
        project could end up changing the way dialysis care is delivered.

        After poring over online dialysis machine owner's manuals, she
        developed a new prototype using simple technology.

        While machines currently cost about $30,000, hers would cost just
        $500 -- making it more affordable for people to buy and have at home.

        Pogharian was inspired by volunteering at a hospital dialysis unit.

        When she was assigned a high school science project, she chose to work
        on a new kind of dialysis unit. She spent 300 hours on her invention --
        well above and beyond the mandatory 10 hours.

        Dialysis is the process of cleaning waste from the blood. It's
        typically used for people who have kidney disease. The treatment
        takes about four hours a couple times per week.

        Pogharian said she wanted to find a way to improve the procedure,
        which can be hard on patients.

        "It takes a lot of energy out of them," said Pogharian. "They're very
        tired after a dialysis treatment."

        "You wouldn't have to make your way to the hospital, which is a
        problem for a lot of patients. It's not necessarily easy to make
        your way to the hospital three times a week, especially it you have
        limited mobility," she said.

        Testing it out

        Her project has earned her a slew of scholarships and awards. Now,
        Hema-Quebec has offered her a summer internship, to try out her
        invention with real blood.

        "All the population will benefit from that kind of instrument that
        will reduce medical care cost, hospitalization stays. Basically,
        it's a great idea," said Louis Thibault, director of applied research
        at Hema-Quebec.

        Pogharian said she hopes one day, her invention will be used overseas.

        "Ten per cent of patients living in India and Pakistan who need
        the treatment can't afford it or can't have it in any way. It's not
        accessible. So that motivated me."

        But Pogharian says she's focusing on doing well on her CEGEP midterm
        Hayastan or Bust.


        • #54
          Re: News in Science


          Hayastan or Bust.


          • #55
            Re: News in Science

            New planet.
            Hayastan or Bust.


            • #56
              Re: News in Science

              Interesting research results here regarding aspirin and the prevention of Heart attack, cancer, and stroke.

              Hayastan or Bust.


              • #57
                Re: News in Science

                5,000-Year-Old Throne Found in Turkey
                By Rossella Lorenzi
                Sep 18, 2015

                The remains of a 5,000-year-old adobe basament of a possible "throne"
                have been unearthed during excavations in Turkey, revealing the
                origins of the secularization of power and one of the first evidence
                of the birth of the state system.

                Discovered in Aslantepe in the eastern Turkish province of Malatya,
                the structure consists of an adobe platform, raised by three steps
                above the floor, on top of which burnt wooden pieces were found.

                "The burnt wooden fragments are likely the remains of a chair or
                throne," excavation director Marcella Frangipane of La Sapienza
                University in Rome, told Discovery News.

                Frangipane, who has long been digging at the site, is working to bring
                to light a huge complex dating to the fourth millennium B.C.
                (3350-3100 B.C.)

                "It's the world's first evidence of a real palace and it is extremely
                well preserved, with walls standing two meters high," Frangipane said.

                The complex features two temples, storage rooms, various buildings and
                a large entrance corridor. Some walls are decorated with red and black
                motifs and with geometrical impressed patterns.

                "In the past two campaigns we found a large courtyard which can be
                reached through the corridor. On the courtyard stands a monumental
                building," Frangipane said.

                Within such building, the archaeologists unearthed the adobe platform.
                It stood in a small room which opened into the courtyard.

                Frangipane believes the chief or king appeared in the throne room to
                give audience to the public, gathered in the large courtyard.

                In front of the platform where the throne likely stood, the
                archaeologists also unearthed two small and low adobe platforms,
                probably made for people to stand on while they appeared before the

                "This reception courtyard and building were not a temple complex, they
                rather appear as the heart of the palace. We do not have religious
                rites here, but a ceremony showing the power of the 'king' and the
                state," Frangipane said.

                She noted the remains are the first evidence of a change in the
                exercise of power, which from theocratic becomes non-religious.
                Usually exerted in temples, power now happens in the throne room.

                "The state governing system was already in progress here," Frangipane said.

                Hayastan or Bust.


                • #58
                  Re: News in Science


                  YEREVAN, October 14. /ARKA/. Nano Hi has won Armenia's National
                  Cleantech Business Ideas Competition 2015.

                  Gagik Shmavonyan, the head of the company, told ARKA News Agency that
                  Nano Hi has taken part in the contest for two consecutive years now.

                  "In the previous contest we were among four teams which won money
                  prizes and this year we became the national winner," he said.

                  In his words, his team competed with a technology for production a
                  water bottle in the previous contest, and now it presented thermo
                  photo voltaic containers.

                  To produce this container, the company has been working in nano
                  technology area over 15 years.

                  "We have accomplished a great deal, and our biggest achievement is
                  that we have got Armenian and international patents," Shmavonyan said.

                  He said the $10,000 his team won in 2014 was spent on necessary
                  equipment. "We will have prototypes of an appropriate container,"
                  he added.

                  The main aim of the contest is to put innovative ideas into practice
                  and to support innovators. Armenia held its first contest in 2014.

                  Armenia was the first country in Eastern Europe to join UNIDO GEF
                  Global Cleantech Innovation Program for SMEs.

                  Some 24 companies presented their business ideas to jurors, who
                  singled out the best ideas, of which the national winner was chosen.

                  The selected teams get $10,000 for developing their ideas, and the
                  representatives of Ecotechnology, the company representing the national
                  winner, will attend in November the annual Global Forum in Silicon
                  Valley, where they present their business model to venture funds,
                  investors and experts.

                  The duration of the Global Cleantech Innovation Program for SMEs
                  in Armenia is three years. The aim of the program is to support
                  startup small and medium companies that use clean technologies and
                  to encourage innovators.

                  National partners of the program are the Armenian nature protection,
                  economy, energy and natural resources and agriculture ministries.


                  Hayastan or Bust.


                  • #59
                    Re: News in Science

                    New Magnetic Chips Offer Computing With One Million Times Less Energy



                    14:43 13.03.2016(updated 16:18 13.03.2016)

                    Scientists have shown that computing using magnetic chips can reduce power consumption to one millionth of the amount of energy used by transistors in modern computers.

                    The US has banned Intel from selling China chips it requires to update its Tianhe-2 supercomputer - the world's largest - over concerns that it will be used for nuclear explosive activities.

                    Flickr/ cell105

                    No Deal: Intel Can’t Sell Chips to China Over US Nuclear Fears
                    Scientists at the University of Berkeley have found that the amount of energy used per operation by computer components can be reduced to as little as one-millionth what it is now, if the transistors in modern computers are replaced with new magnetic chips.

                    "We wanted to know how small we could shrink the amount of energy needed for computing," explained Jeffrey Bokor, professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences at the University of Berkeley and senior author of a paper about the breakthrough published in the journal Science Advances on Friday.

                    "The biggest challenge in designing computers and, in fact, all our electronics today is reducing their energy consumption."

                    The scientists were looking for a new way to lower the energy use of computer chips, which are currently silicon-based and are packed with transistors that rely on electric currents, or moving electrons, that generate a lot of waste heat.

                    "Making transistors go faster was requiring too much energy," said Bokor.

                    "The chips were getting so hot they'd just melt."

                    In an effort to decrease energy use, researchers are turning their focus to alternatives to transistors, following decades of microprocessor development that has had a focus on packing greater numbers of increasingly tiny and faster transistors onto the chips.

                    Chips that use tiny bar magnets are one promising alternative to conventional transistors, as they require no moving electrons and expend less energy.

                    The study from the scientists at Berkeley has shown that these magnetic chips can operate with the lowest fundamental level of energy dissipation possible under the laws of thermodynamics.

                    An alliance led by IBM Research has produced the semiconductor industry's first 7nm (nanometer) node test chips with functional transistors

                    AP Photo/ Darryl Bautista/Feature Photo Service for IBM

                    Goodbye, Simple Silicon: IBM Announces Computer Chip Breakthrough
                    Their experimental investigation recorded the intrinsic energy loss of a single-bit reset operation, and discovered that the process lost only 15 millielectron volts, or three zeptojoules, of energy.

                    This amount is consistent with the Landauer limit, a theory which states that in any computer, each single bit operation must expend an absolute minimum amount of energy.

                    "Although experimental tests of Landauer’s limit have previously been performed using trapped microbeads, our result using a completely different physical system confirms its generality and, in particular, its applicability to practical information processing systems," the scientists wrote in their paper.

                    The advance is particularly important for mobile devices requiring powerful processors that can last a day or more on small, lightweight batteries, while the increase in cloud computing also demands greater electricity for the increasing number of giant cloud data centers.

                    "The significance of this result is that today’s computers are far from the fundamental limit and that future dramatic reductions in power consumption are possible."

                    "Given that power consumption is the key issue that limits the continued improvement in digital computers, the result has profound suggestions for the future development of information technology," the paper concluded.

                    According to Moore's Law, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years, reflecting an observation made by Intel co-founder Gordon Moore in 1965. Although the pace slowed last year according to Intel, the new magnetic technology offers hope that advances in computer processing will continue.

                    Read more:
                    Hayastan or Bust.


                    • #60
                      Re: News in Science

                      Never Walk in Space Without a Spacesuit, Cosmonauts Warn



                      12:29 25.03.2016(updated 14:37 25.03.2016)

                      When answering users’ questions posted on the US Embassy’s Facebook page, Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko and US astronaut Scott Kelly strongly advised to always wear a spacesuit during a spacewalk.

                      When asked whether blood will boil due to a drop in pressure if the spacesuit is damaged, Scott and Mikhail said: “Well, we wouldn’t advise you to go out in space without a pressure suit, but this is exactly what would happen… Nitrogen dissolved in your system would come out causing your blood to boil.”

                      Kornienko said that he had been inspired to fly to space by his father.

                      “My dad was a pilot on a rescue helicopter and he worked with teams who provided initial rehabilitation assistance to landing cosmonauts. He was there when Valentina Tereshkova and German Titov landed,” Mikhail said.

                      Scott Kelly admitted that he had missed the feeling of sitting in a tub filled with water. He also mentioned “dozens “of computer notebooks being used on board the International Space Station.

                      “Some of them are used to control the station’s systems, some- for our personal convenience. Each crewmember has an additional notebook in his bedroom,” Scott explained.

                      International Space Station


                      Orbital ATK Spaceship Set to Carry Fifth Cargo Delivery to ISS
                      Due to the astronauts’ tight schedule many questions went unanswered. Including the one about any “sanctioned” foods being consumed on the ISS and when photographs made on the space outpost were scheduled to go on display.

                      The landing capsule of the Soyuz TMA-18M spacecraft, carrying three crew members of the International Space Station, landed in Kazakhstan on March 2.

                      Back to Earth arrived Mikhail Kornienko, Scott Kelly and Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov, who had spent six months onboard the ISS.

                      The ISS trio left behind NASA astronaut Tim Kopra, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and the European Space Agency's British astronaut Tim Peake.

                      NASA's Jeff Williams and Roscosmos' Oleg Skriprochka and Alexey Ovchinin, joined them following a launch from Baikonur on March 18.

                      US magazine Fortune has put Mikhail Kornienko in its list of 50 greatest leaders changing the world. Kornienko shared the 22nd position with US astronaut Scott Kelly. The two have spent eleven months working on board the International Space Station.

                      “The two men returned to earth on March 2 after working side by side for 340 days in the International Space Station, a journey in which they circled the planet 5,440 times, traveled 144 million miles (nearly the distance from the earth to Mars), and conducted more than 400 scientific experiments — profoundly expanding our understanding of space’s effects on human beings and showing that, when it comes to the final frontier, there is no border between nations,” the magazine wrote.

                      Read more:
                      Hayastan or Bust.